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Annotated Bibliographies

Gives an overview of annotated bibliographies and examples of the four most common kinds of annotations.

What Is the Difference?

  • Indicative 
  • Evaluative
  • Informative 
  • Combination

Examples of Four Main Types of Annotations

Indicative Annotation

Griffin, C. (Ed.). (1982). Teaching writing in all disciplines. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

This book includes ten essays on writing-across-the-curriculum programs, teaching writing in disciplines other than English, and teaching techniques for using writing as learning. Essays include Toby Fulwiler, "Writing: An Act of Cognition;" Barbara King, "Using Writing in the Mathematics Class: Theory and Practice;" Dean Drenk, "Teaching Finance Through Writing;" and Elaine P. Maimon, "Writing Across the Curriculum: Past, Present, and Future."

Evaluative Annotation

Lange, Karl P. "Native American Medicines and the Lewis and Clark Expedition.” Journal of Western American History 51 (1992): 534-568.

Lange, a Doctor of Naturopathic medicine at Eastern State University, presents a convincing argument that the Lewis and Clark expedition would have failed had they relied solely on the medicines in common use in the United States at the time.  Lange supports his arguments with numerous passages from the published journals and letters of expedition members.  This is a very informative article which provides an extensive inventory of native medicines, including how they were used by the expedition.  The article is well illustrated with numerous diagrams of native plants used by the expedition and contains an extensive bibliography of additional resources.

Informative Annotation

Voeltz, L.M. (1980). Children's attitudes toward handicapped peers. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 84, 455-464.

As services for severely handicapped children become increasingly available within neighborhood public schools, children's attitudes toward handicapped peers in integrated settings warrant attention.  Factor analysis of attitude survey responses of 2,393 children revealed four factors underlying attitudes toward handicapped peers: social-contract willingness, deviance consequation, and two actual contact dimensions. Upper elementary-age children, girls, and children in schools with most contact with severely handicapped peers expressed the most accepting attitudes.  Results of this study suggest the modifiability of children's attitudes and the need to develop interventions to facilitate social acceptance of individual differences in integrated school settings. 

Combination Annotation

Morris, J.M. (1959). Reading in the primary school: An investigation into standards of reading and their association with primary school characteristics. London: Newnes, for National Foundation for Educational Research.

The author reports on a large-scale investigation into English children's reading standards and their relation to conditions such as size of classes, organization and methods of teaching.  The report is based on inquires in sixty schools in Kent and covers 8,000 children learning to read English as their mother tongue.  The work is notable for thoroughness of research techniques.

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