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NSG 628: Methods and Design


Limit to Evidence-Based Practice when searching CINAHL to retrieve articles from evidence-based practice journals (including Cochrane), as well as articles about evidence-based practice, research articles (including systematic reviews, clinical trials, meta analyses, qualitative studies), commentaries on research studies (applying practice to research), case studies if they meet the criteria of the use of research and/or evidence-based practice terms.

The database developers give this explanation.

Best Practices

Systematic Reviews

Selected EBP Web Sites

Two options for links, resources, and tools for evidence-based practice questions.

Viva La Evidence

Levels of Evidence

Level 1     Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Level 2     Randomized controlled trials
Level 3     a. Cohort studies (with control group)
                  b. Case-controlled 
                  c. Observational studies (without control group)
Level 4     Expert opinion, physiology bench research, or consensus

Levels of Evidence


Use PICOS to develop a clear idea what information you are seeking. PICOS was developed by faculty at McMaster University.

P Population/Patient/Problem For which group do you need information?
I Intervention

What medical event do you need to study
the effect of?

C Comparison What is the evidence that the intervention
produces different results than a different
or no intervention?
O Outcome What is the effect of the intervention?
S Setting/Study Type Where is the research done (e.g.,
ambulatory setting) or type of study (e.g., RCT)?
T Time What are the time factors?            
Search MEDLINE/PubMed via PICO
PICOS Worksheet

Some Studies That I Like to Quote