Well-Built Clinical Queries
Depending on your experience, you may first need to ask background questions to acquire general knowledge about a condition or thing. These commonly take the form of a question: who, what, where, when, how, why and a verb. Example: What causes SARS?
"Foreground" Questions use PICOS to seek specific knowledge (causal or predictive) to assist in clinical decisions or actions. PICOS was developed by faculty at McMaster University.
PICO [S, T] - health interventions, diagnosis, prognosis
|P||Patient or Population||For which group do you need information?|
|I||Intervention||Surgery, teaching, medication, etc.|
|C||Comparison||What is the evidence that the intervention
produces different results than a different
or no intervention?
|O||Outcome||What is the effect of the intervention?|
|S||Setting or Study type||Where is the research done (e.g.,
ambulatory setting) or type of study (e.g., RCT)?
|T||Time||What are the time factors?|
SPIDER - qualitative evidence synthesis or for mixed-methods research
|P I||Phenomenon of Interest|
Cooke, A., Smith, D. & Booth, A (2012). Beyond PICO: the SPIDER tool for qualitative evidence synthesis. Qualitative Health Research, 22(1435). doi: 10.1177/1049732312452938)] http://qhr.sagepub.com/content/22/10/1435.full.pdf+html. Comparison with PICO on page 1438.
ECLIPS(E) - health service management searches
|E||Expectation||How will the information be used?|
|C||Client group||Who needs this?|
|L||Location||Where will it be used?|
|I||Impact||Service change? What would a successful outcome look like? How is it being measured?|
|P||Professionals||Who provides/ikmproves the service?|
|S||Service||Which service/unit needs this change/information? Outpatient, ICU?|
Wildrige, V. How CLIP became ECLIPSE: a mnemonic to assist in searching for health policy/management information. HILJ 2002; 19(2):113-5 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-1842.2002.00378.x/epdf
The Yale MeSH Analyzer's primary goal is to help find controlled vocabularies (subject headings) to enhance the quality of articles retrieved. The tool generates a grid that can be customized. There is a browser bookmarklet for direct use with PubMed. This tool extracts selected records from a PubMed search and sends them to the analyzer. Use the Help page for the website to install this tool in your favorite browser.