Use PICOS to develop a clear idea what information you are seeking. PICOS was developed by faculty at McMaster University.
|P||Population/Patient/Problem||For which group do you need information?|
|I||Intervention||What medical event do you need to study the effect of?|
|C||Comparison||What is the evidence that the intervention produces different results than a different or no intervention?|
|O||Outcome||What is the effect of the intervention?|
|S||Setting/Study Type||Where is the research done (e.g., ambulatory setting) or type of study (e.g., RCT)?|
|T||Time||What are the time factors?|
Full text articles are available to the UAA community from these journals.
The Cochrane Library is a subscription and available to the UAA community only. The other resources are freely available to all.
Level 1 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Level 2 Randomized controlled trials
Level 3 a. Cohort studies (with control group)
c. Observational studies (without control group)
Level 4 Expert opinion, physiology bench research, or consensus